What has been popularly referred to as the “Paleolithic Diet” or “Paleo Diet” is a dietary pattern based on not eating agricultural products, thus focusing on the consumption of meat, fish, eggs, nuts, fruits and vegetables. This diet is promoted worldwide to improve intestinal health, however, it excludes grains and dairy.
While total dietary fiber intake can be maintained on a Paleo diet by consuming fruits and vegetables, the exclusion of whole grains and legumes alters the fiber profile consumed and results in reduced intake of resistant starch.
In addition, the elimination of protein sources from cereals, dairy and legumes means that the majority of protein ingested is of animal origin, which may increase TMAO concentrations, which may not be healthy (there is controversy). On the other hand, it may worsen the gut microbiota with a lower abundance of beneficial bacteria.
The data presented by Genoni et al 2020 conclude that the long-term Paleo diet may not be beneficial for gut health and do not support the rationale for excluding whole grains. The microbiota composition derived from a low-carbohydrate, high-fat diet cannot be beneficial to long-term health.
Well, all this would be invalidated if we really define what should be a real Paleo diet (evolutionary diet) and not what has been commercially sold as “Paleo diet”, which is nothing more than an invented name to refer to the evolutionary diet and it is a mistake to allude to it as if it was a specific type of established diet. What evolutionary nutrition is about is to imitate as much as possible the dietary pattern that human beings have had during their evolution as a species, and it must be taken into account that this diet varied greatly depending on geography, season of the year, etc. Therefore, it is a mistake to interpret the “paleo diet” as a diet high in protein and rich in meat or to think that it is a diet low in carbohydrates and high in fat. The Paleo diet does not specify macronutrients.