Fungi are a rare cause of pneumonia and often it’s regional, for example there’s coccidioidomycosis in california in the southwest which you can remember because there’s a c in both cocci and california histoplasmosis in ohio and the mississippi river valleys ancient histo in ancient ohio and blastomycosis which are broad-based budding yeast in the east, you remember that with east and yeast and the broad-based budding refers to the fact that under a microscope, when the fungi butt off each other there’s a broad versus a narrow base to round out the fungal causes in the U.S, there’s cryptococcus which is cryptic because geographically can pop up really anywhere, now one special fungal culprit is pneumocystis giuvechi which is a risk for immunocompromised individuals and finally there’s mycobacteria which are slow growing like fungi hence the myco in their name even though they’re still bacteria, the most well-known one is mycobacterium tuberculosis also just called pneumonia can also be categorized by how it’s acquired. The most common is community-acquired pneumonia and it’s called that when a person gets sick outside of a hospital or healthcare setting.

Next is hospital-acquired pneumonia or nosocomial pneumonia which is when a person gets pneumonia when they’re already hospitalized for something else, this type tends to be more serious because sick patients often have a weakened immune system and the microbes in hospitals are often resistant to the common antibiotics, that’s because hospitals bring together the bacteria that are often the most violent, think great offense as well as the most resistant think great defense and these bacteria are able to swap some of the antibiotic resistance genes with each other, a well-known example is methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus or mrsa non-resistant staph aureus can cause pneumonia and other infections but it can also be killed by common antibiotics like ampicillin but some on the other hand is resistant to many antibiotics and is therefore harder to treat.

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