Did you know that the human stomach can store up to four liters of food at any time, that’s about as much as two coke bottles, insane, so we’re going to talk about how our stomach helps us process food it just received from the oral cavity and the esophagus, the stomach is primarily responsible for three steps, first of all it’s going to receive a bolus of food from the esophagus, this bolus is just food that’s been turned into a sphere that can now be processed then the stomach can do two things here, to help process the food, the first thing the stomach does is that it churns this bolus or it churns the food, the muscular walls of the stomach here allow it to compress down and break up this food even more, in addition there’s also a certain degree of hydrolysis. Hydrolysis or enzyme assisted degradation or breakdown of this bolus and we’ll talk about the enzyme that’s responsible for this process in a moment and then finally after we do all these things we receive a product that’s called chyme. Chyme is just a mixture of whatever the bolus has been broken up to including the gastric enzymes and juices that we’ve used and then the food is going to actually just stay here for a little bit because the stomach also stores food, it’ll store the food until it’s an appropriate time for the chyme to be squirted into the duodenum or the first part of the small intestine to be processed and that’s why we can store up to two to four litres of food at any given time. Now what about the anatomy of the stomach here, how do we release these enzymes and break down this bolus, let’s take a look at a little bit of gastric anatomy right about there so we know how it’s responsible for the breakdown of food, we can imagine that the stomach is lined with all these in foldings, these in foldings of the gastric wall that helped to increase the surface area and in doing so there’s actually a layer of cells that sit around here, this layer of cells actually secretes a lot of the components of the gastric juice we’re going to see and it’s nicely ripe with a ton of important components and the main thing to remember in the stomach is that there are three types of cells that are involved here.
The first type we are going to talk about are called parietal cells, parietal cells and the main thing that’s released from parietal cells is hydro chloric acid, hydrochloric acid is a very acidic or a very corrosive acid that’s actually more acidic than battery acid, in addition to parietal cells we also have chief cells, chief cells; these guys secrete an enzyme called pepsin and this is the inactive form of the enzyme pepsinogen, it is not active in fact in order for hydrolysis to occur we need an enzyme that’s called pepsin. How is pepsin made? well we’re going to need pepsinogen to make it but the pepsinogen and whenever you see Jin G en at the end of the name, that means that it’s almost there, it’s just needs to be processed, in order to turn pepsinogen into pepsin we need hydrochloric acid which will break down this protein to turn it into this active form that can then be used for hydrolysis. Now what would happen if we just had a bunch of pepsin or a bunch of hydrochloric acid present in the stomach all the time what do you think would happen to the stomach, it would probably eat itself alive, isn’t that right? I mean you’ve got your cell membrane that definitely has a considerable amount of protein that should be present there and in addition you’ve got this really corrosive acidic substance that can eat through your stomach and that’s actually how you have gastric ulcers but not all of us have gastric ulcers, what we also have in our gastric pits right here that help us prevent gastric ulcers from occurring in the first place.
The third type of cell that we have sitting in here are actually called mucus cells, mucus cells and just like the name suggests, mucus cells release what’s called mucin and this is a coating that will sit around the stomach to make sure that things like pepsin or hydrochloric acid don’t degrade the stomach. Without mucus cells, we would eat ourselves alive, so as a review of the three things the stomach will do for us is that it will churn with its very muscular walls to help break down the bolus in a very physical activity, also there’s an enzymatic or a chemical process that occurs here where we use pepsin to degrade food, now pepsin itself only degrades one type of nutrient and that’s protein, this will break peptide bonds or the bond that connects amino acids to one another to degrade your protein macromolecules so that’s the only type of nutrient that’s broken down in your stomach, once we hydrolyze a significant amount of the protein, we’re going to produce chyme that is stored in the stomach until it’s the right time for it to be released into the next part of your GI tract called the duodenum, the first part of the small intestine and that’s how your stomach works.
Everyone experiences an upset stomach and indigestion, or dyspepsia, from time to time after eating or drinking. The condition is usually no cause for concern, and it is often possible to treat the symptoms using home remedies.
Some of the most popular home remedies for an upset stomach and indigestion include:
1. Drinking water
The body needs water to digest and absorb nutrients from foods and beverages efficiently. Being dehydrated makes digestion more difficult and less effective, which increases the likelihood of an upset stomach.
In general, the Health and Medicine Division (HMD) recommend that:
women should have around 2.7 liters (l), or 91 ounces (oz), of water a day
men should have about 3.7 l, or 125 oz, of water a day
Around 20 percent of this will come from food, with the rest coming from beverages. For most people, a good figure to aim for is approximately 8 or more cups of water a day. Younger children require slightly less water than adults.
For those with digestive issues, it is imperative to stay hydrated. Vomiting and diarrhea can lead to dehydration very quickly so people with these symptoms should keep drinking water.
2. Avoiding lying down
When the body is horizontal, the acid in the stomach is more likely to travel backward and move upward, which can cause heartburn.
People with an upset stomach should avoid lying down or going to bed for at least a few hours until it passes. Someone who needs to lie down should prop up their head, neck, and upper chest with pillows, ideally at a 30-degree angle.
Ginger is a common natural remedy for an upset stomach and indigestion.
Ginger contains chemicals called gingerols and shogaols that can help speed up stomach contractions. This may move foods that are causing indigestion through the stomach more quickly.
The chemicals in ginger may also help to reduce nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea.
People with an upset stomach could try adding ginger to their food or drinking it as a tea. Some all-natural ginger ales may also contain enough ginger to settle an upset stomach.
In addition to sweetening the breath, the menthol in mint may help with the following:
preventing vomiting and diarrhea
reducing muscle spasms in the intestines
ResearchersTrusted Source have found that mint is a traditional treatment for indigestion, gas, and diarrhea in Iran, Pakistan, and India.
Raw and cooked mint leaves are both suitable for consumption. Traditionally, people often boil mint leaves with cardamom to make a tea. It is also possible to powder or juice mint leaves and mix them with other teas, beverages, or foods. Mint leaves are widely available in health stores and online.
Sucking on mint candies might be another way to help reduce the pain and discomfort of heartburn.
5. Taking a warm bath or using a heating bag
Heat may relax tense muscles and ease indigestion, so taking a warm bath may help to ease the symptoms of an upset stomach. It could also be beneficial to apply a heated bag or pad to the stomach for 20 minutes or until it goes cool.