As for body composition, although it is true that insulin exerts a potent inhibitory effect on lipolysis and lipogenesis, focusing on the complex process we are talking about and simplifying human physiology to it is a reductionist view of the matter, since it focuses on a specific point, but the context and the globality are abandoned. For example, protein raises insulin levels, sometimes even more than certain carbohydrates, but here 2 errors occur, one the fact that not only carbohydrates raise insulin, and two: we focus on macronutrients but not on food, since the composition and complete matrix of food are what will determine this fact, along with the caloric value of it, food composition (quality), etc.. So the problem lies not in the macronutrient CHO, but in hypercaloric, hyperpalatable foods, with low fiber and nutrient content, which alter the hunger-satiety mechanism, etc…yes, you guessed it, the ultra-processed ones. The Kitava, with a 75% carbohydrate-based diet, do not base their diet on cookies, cookies, soft drinks, but rather on tubers, fruits, vegetables, etc.

Furthermore, the simplification that low-carbohydrate diets are better for fat loss per se, loses context if the total daily caloric intake is not taken into account, since it will be decisive in the process of fat loss or not, being that in healthy subjects, surely, although a low-carbohydrate diet lowers insulin levels, if the total calories consumed are the same in a diet high in carbohydrates or high in fat, weight loss will be the same.

In fact, the total calories consumed is a determining factor in the process of fat loss, and while it is true that many other factors influence and we can not only limit it to calories in and calories out, plus the problem of obesity goes far beyond the energy balance, that does not mean that calories do not count. In fact to conclude that obesity is due only to a positive energy balance is just as unwise, simplistic and wrong as saying that total calories don’t matter, but this is a very long topic and is not the subject of development here.

It is very common to think that the main reason why we put on weight is because carbohydrates are stored as body fat, but however, as I have said, this is a simplistic view of the matter, since it ignores the context of the subject: does this happen in athletes and with adequate muscle mass?

What happens is that when we ingest carbohydrates, our body uses more glucose as a source of energy and the fats that we ingest through the diet cannot be used as a source of energy and will be stored as body fat, but if you do not reach your minimum requirements, the body will oxidize fat to produce the energy that we are providing.

In fact, when we allude to the different types of diets with different names, they have been proposed for fat loss, however, the common point for which (apart from others) they are effective is that for one reason or another, they create an energy deficit (image 6).

Finally, the idea that a diet rich in carbohydrates produces glucose peaks and consequently insulin peaks, and that if repeated over time it leads to insulin resistance and subsequently to obesity, cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes or hypertension, is very simplistic and does not take into account contexts, since although there are some intervention studies in patients with disorders with the common nexus of insulin resistance (Metabolic Syndrome, Type II Diabetes, Ovarian Syndrome, Type II Ovarian Syndrome, Type I Diabetes, Type II Ovarian Syndrome, Type II Diabetes, Type II Ovarian Syndrome, Type II Ovarian Syndrome, Type II Diabetes, Type II Ovarian Syndrome, Type II Diabetes, Type II Ovarian Syndrome, Type II Ovarian Syndrome), Type II Diabetes, Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome, etc) where low-carb diets are superior to low-fat diets, studies in healthy individuals and especially athletes do not show that a diet rich in carbohydrates causes adverse metabolic alterations and even less that it leads to Obesity, Metabolic Syndrome and Type II Diabetes. In fact, individual context (lifestyle, health status, athletic or sedentary, percentage of fat, muscle tissue, etc) will largely determine how someone responds to the hormone insulin and may be key in determining how it will affect their metabolism or body composition. And the dreaded de novo lipogenesis (conversion of glucose to fatty acids) will not be an occurrence (at least substantially) in active and/or athletic people. So, apart from all the above, where we are mostly wrong when simplifying this story, is in the context of the subject …..

And all this without taking into account a determining factor in all this, the muscular tissue… I will explain it in the second part of this post soon…

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